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Alcoholic cirrhosis is an alcohol-induced liver disease that has progressed to the late stage.
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) describes damage to the liver and abnormal liver function due to alcohol abuse. Alcohol abuse can result in the following liver conditions:2
Alcoholic cirrhosis is irreversible inflammation and thickening of liver tissue caused by alcohol use. It is an end-stage liver disease that occurs after years of alcohol intake.
The liver is the largest internal organ. It plays vital roles in the body such as:
Excess alcohol intake over time can lead to liver diseases and scar tissue (liver fibrosis). This can interfere with liver function.
According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), alcohol-related liver disease is the primary cause of deaths related to alcohol intake. Heavy alcoholics typically progress from fatty liver to hepatitis and cirrhosis.6
Decades of heavy alcohol intake cause the body to replace healthy liver tissue with scar tissue. The medical term for this is “alcoholic liver cirrhosis.”
As alcoholic liver disease progresses, more healthy liver tissue is replaced by scar tissue. Liver diseases like alcoholic liver cirrhosis also affect liver function.
Alcoholic liver cirrhosis is an advanced form of alcohol-related liver disease caused by years of alcohol abuse.1
Heavy alcohol consumption of about 60 to 80g/day for men or 20 to 50g/day for women increases the risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis.7
Different factors can cause cirrhosis of the liver. However, alcohol-induced cirrhosis is directly linked to chronic alcohol use.
Liver damage from alcohol occurs in several stages:
Fatty liver refers to the buildup of fat in your liver. This condition is usually reversible. It may not cause serious health issues. You may not even have symptoms. However, it can be a warning sign that you are drinking too much.
From fatty liver, the condition progresses to alcoholic hepatitis. This condition occurs when healthy liver cells die. You may experience significant health problems. Alcoholic hepatitis is a more serious form of liver damage. It may be reversed.
Cirrhosis is the buildup of scar tissue in your liver. This is usually irreversible. It can cause severe illness. If cirrhosis progresses significantly, you may require a liver transplant or experience liver failure.
The liver is actively involved in the breakdown of alcohol. Therefore it makes sense that excess alcohol consumption can damage and affect liver function.
The time it takes to develop cirrhosis varies from person to person. Some studies have shown that a person has to drink heavily for at least eight years to develop cirrhosis. The NIAAA defines heavy drinking as consuming more than 14 drinks per week for men and more than seven drinks per week for women.3
Binge drinking can also contribute to liver damage. Binge drinking involves consuming more than four to five servings of alcohol in two hours.
Drinking alcohol reduces life expectancy. People who drink alcohol heavily are prone to cirrhosis.
The most significant risk factor for alcoholic liver cirrhosis is chronic alcohol abuse.
In 2010, alcoholic cirrhosis caused the death of 493,300 people (336,400 male deaths and 156,900 female deaths) globally.8
Other risk factors of alcoholic cirrhosis are:
Women have a higher risk of developing alcohol-related diseases.
This is because they do not have as many enzymes in their gastrointestinal (GI) tract compared to men. This makes it easier for alcohol to reach the liver and causes damage to the healthy liver cells.
The development of alcoholic liver disease can be linked to genetic factors. For instance, people born with an enzyme deficiency involved in alcohol elimination have a higher risk of developing alcohol-induced liver disease.
Some diseases such as hepatitis C and obesity can increase a person’s likelihood of developing alcoholic liver disease.
Alcoholic liver cirrhosis is a chronic liver disease. People with the condition usually do not present any symptoms during the early stages.
However, advanced alcoholic cirrhosis shows noticeable symptoms.
Alcoholic liver cirrhosis has similar symptoms as other diseases affecting the liver.
Symptoms of alcohol-induced cirrhosis of the liver include:
Alcoholic liver cirrhosis and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis both occur from cirrhosis of the liver. However, the difference in both conditions is in their causes.
Alcoholic liver cirrhosis is caused by chronic, excessive alcohol intake.
However, other factors not related to alcoholism can make someone vulnerable to non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Cirrhosis of the liver that is not caused by drinking is called non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis.
Factors that can make someone vulnerable to non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis include:
Too much collection of fats in the liver can cause a condition known as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main complication of NAFLD is advanced-stage scarring of the liver.
Alcoholic cirrhosis can result in serious complications such as liver cancer.
This is called decompensated cirrhosis. Decompensated alcoholic cirrhosis is when liver function has been affected as a result of alcohol abuse.
Some potential complications of alcoholic liver cirrhosis are:
The lifespan of people living with liver cirrhosis depends on the stage of the condition and varies by person. People whose bodies can manage the condition may live for six to 12 years. However, people with advanced-stage liver disease survive for a shorter duration.
About 50 percent of people living with severe alcoholic cirrhosis live for up to two years. Approximately 35 percent live for up to 5 years.4
Alcoholic liver cirrhosis is typically diagnosed when a history of heavy alcohol consumption over a long duration comes with laboratory evidence of liver cirrhosis.
Alcohol dependence alone is not enough to determine if an individual has cirrhosis of the liver. However, it is a significant risk factor during diagnosis.
Alcoholic liver diseases like cirrhosis may be difficult to diagnose as some patients deny drinking alcohol abuse.
The first step in treating alcoholic liver cirrhosis is to quit alcoholism. This is called abstinence.
Alcohol abstinence may help reverse the early stages of liver disease.
Treatment for alcoholism includes:
It is also important for people with liver cirrhosis to make certain lifestyle changes.
For instance, the following may be recommended:
Other treatment options for alcoholic liver cirrhosis include:
Many doctors believe liver damage from cirrhosis is irreversible. However, in recent years, some studies have shown that liver cirrhosis may be reversible.5
Also, recovery from this condition depends on the type of cirrhosis an individual has and if they stop drinking.
Scientists are still trying to develop better medical treatment options for alcoholic liver disease. Early diagnosis and treatment is key to helping prevent further damage.
Liver cirrhosis is an advanced liver disease. As cirrhosis progresses, it causes more damage.
Quitting drinking immediately can help increase life expectancy.
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