In this article
Alcohol is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant. This means that it can affect the brain and cause various side effects. For example, it can increase the seizure threshold, which reduces the likelihood of a seizure occurring.
A typical alcohol-related seizure (otherwise known as a tonic-clonic seizure) will cause a person to fall to the floor and shake violently for less than 5 minutes.
Seizures in alcohol-dependent individuals may occur because of other simultaneous causes, e.g., an infectious or cerebrovascular disease. In severe cases of alcohol addiction, abruptly stopping alcohol intake can also cause a seizure. Alcohol suppresses and slows down brain activity, and abrupt cessation will dangerously speed it up.
However, multiple studies have shown that alcohol-related seizures often occur after a person stops chronic alcohol consumption suddenly. It is a rebound effect. This means that these symptoms appear when a person quits drinking and experiences withdrawal.
Not everyone who goes through alcohol withdrawal will have seizures. On the other hand, some people may be genetically predisposed to these seizures and have an increased risk.
Overall, alcohol-related seizures could happen when people are acutely intoxicated, stop drinking suddenly, or have not touched a drink for many months. Acute intoxication, though, rarely results in a seizure. Seizure onset may occur within hours to a day in cases where someone has abruptly stopped alcohol intake.
If you experience an alcohol-related seizure, you will most often fall to the floor and shake violently for a few minutes. The clinical term for this type of seizure is called a tonic-clonic seizure.
You may also harm yourself unintentionally when you have an alcohol-related seizure. Because you cannot control your body, you may hit your head, bite your tongue, or lose control of your bladder (incontinence).
Additionally, you will most likely feel confused and irritated after a seizure before you get complete consciousness again.
Alcohol-related seizures are more common among men than women in the US. A contributing factor may be that women are three to four times less frequently heavy drinkers than men.
It is important to know that alcohol-induced seizures could happen for many reasons. However, you face a higher risk of developing these seizures if you have one of the following risk factors:
Alcohol withdrawal seizures occur after a chronic drinker suddenly quits, approximately within 6 to 48 hours.
When an alcohol-dependent person stops drinking, alcohol withdrawal syndrome sets in. Individuals who chronically drink typically experience severe withdrawal. In these cases, delirium tremens (DTs) can develop.
Delirium tremens is when the body undergoes severe and unexpected mental or nervous system changes. During this phase, seizures may also arise.
The main characteristics of seizures associated with delirium tremens include:
However, withdrawal symptoms that accompany delirium tremens do not need to be present while a person experiences a seizure.
Alcohol poisoning can lead to seizures as well as other health issues like Alcohol Use Disorder and weight gain. However, these seizures may not be a result of the alcohol intake itself. Instead, lower blood sugar or head trauma caused by a sudden fall could be the underlying causes.
Drinking to intoxication and binge drinking are dangerous behaviors. Current evidence shows these behaviors are highly associated with seizures. In such cases, seizures may be worse if they do occur.
In 2019, 25.8% of people (18 and up) in the United States said they had participated in binge drinking within the last month.
Currently, there have not been enough clinical trials to show the efficacy and safety of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in people who are alcohol-dependent.
However, there have been reports that the risk of seizure increases in an alcohol-dependent person who misuses a sedative and takes nonsedative AEDs.
Overall, an alcohol-dependent person is recommended to seek care first for alcohol dependence before any drug treatment for non-withdrawal-related seizures. This approach minimizes the likelihood of drug use, drug intoxications, drug-alcohol interactions, and seizures.
Drinking alcohol may trigger seizures in people with epilepsy. However, there has been debate about the relationship between alcohol consumption and seizures.
Other factors that accompany excessive drinking and could increase the risk of seizures include:
Researchers also found that people with generalized genetic epilepsy may be more susceptible to alcohol-related seizures.
However, occasional or light/moderate alcohol consumption may not increase the risk of seizure occurrence in many patients with epilepsy.
Because each person is unique, though, it is best to seek medical advice before having any alcoholic beverage. A doctor can assess whether light or moderate alcohol drinking is a safe activity.
Approximately 41 to 49% of people with acute seizure issues (i.e., seizures that require emergency care and admission) in industrialized countries abuse alcohol.
Alcohol seizures can be dangerous and even life-threatening. When you experience this type of seizure, you can hurt yourself by biting your tongue or hitting your head. You can even stop breathing.
Also, if you have multiple alcohol withdrawal seizures, you could develop status epilepticus. This happens when:
In worst-case scenarios, status epilepticus may result in permanent brain damage, epileptogenesis (a condition in which the brain develops epilepsy), or death.
Doctors may consider three different approaches to treat alcohol seizures, including:
If a person is under inpatient medical care, doctors may prescribe long-acting benzodiazepines or antiepileptics drugs to prevent seizures. Both are equally effective in treatment. In cases of possible delirium tremens, doctors may also recommend diazepam or clomethiazole (chlormethiazole). Both work well for preventing seizures and DT, if they are prescribed in inpatient settings.
Finally, for alcohol-dependent people with status epilepticus, doctors may administer phenytoin intravenously.
If you or a loved one suffer from alcohol addiction, you have many different therapy options available:
Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) has shown high potential in reducing alcohol use, and promoting cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) sessions could give those with the disorder better coping skills for triggers. Healthcare specialists may also prescribe medications like naltrexone, acamprosate, and disulfiram to treat the alcohol problem.
In this article